DECRETO 4127 DE 2005 PDF

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Contents for MAP NEWS, rd Edition, 17 Oct Mail to: World Neighbors, NW nd, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma .. “Proyecto de decreto de presupuesto de egresos de la federacin para el ejercicio fiscal. Législation nationale sur le droit du travail, la sécurité sociale et les droits de la personne .. FOR THE PURPOSES OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PURSUANT TO THE DIRECTIVE /71/EC for the purposes of implementing Laws N° /, / and / .. por el que se deroga el decreto núm. Loi no 1/73 du 4 juin portant obligation aux employeurs de prélever pour le compte of Chapter A’ of the Law N° of , and other wage-related provisions. .. for the application of Laws N° /, / and / .. la ley de salarios de la Administración Pública, contenida en el decreto núm.

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This is the rd Edition of the Mangrove Action Project News, brought to your cyberspace door free of charge since Partnering with mangrove forest communities, grassroots NGOs, researchers and local governments to conserve and restore mangrove forests and related coastal ecosystems, while promoting community-based, sustainable management of coastal resources.

Nigeria 10th November is the tenth anniversary of the judicial murder of the Ogoni 9. Lessons from Katrina and Rita: Now her city is a huge, sprawling mass of shopping centers, tract housing and seemingly endless freeways teeming night and day with millions of residents drawn by a booming oil economy.

The MAP News, 163rd Ed., 17 Oct 2005

They also warn that the evacuation nightmares triggered by Katrina and Rita should convince emergency officials and individual families across the country to do top-down evaluations of their disaster plans, since cities not in the hurricane zone could be hit with a terrorist attack. Some scientists also believe global warming is contributing to more numerous, powerful hurricanes, although others are not convinced of the link.

Recent data, however, does show that sea surface temperatures have risen, and researchers are certain that warmer waters make for more powerful storms. Whatever the causes, the result of more active hurricane seasons could well be repeats of the massive evacuation of Houston prior to Hurricane Rita, along with scenes of devastation rivaling those in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina and the Texas-Louisiana coastal area following Rita.

The Gulf and Atlantic coasts are lined with barrier islands — narrow strips of sand that move, sometimes hundreds of feet, secreto storms erode them, cut new inlets through ee and shift sand offshore or to new locations. Now those barrier islands are home to millions of new residents, many of whom live in towering condominiums or expensive homes built directly on the waterfront.

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The buildings often go right on top of the sand dunes, wiping out the natural sand bank the beach needs to rebuild itself after storms. Florida is a prime example. Inthe state was a sleepy agricultural and vacation spot of some 5 million residents. Today more than 17 million people call Florida home, with 13 million of them living in coastal counties, and most of those crammed inside sprawling urban areas like Jacksonville, South Florida and the Tampa Bay region.

Nationally, the number of people living in coastal areas has nearly doubled sincejumping from people per square mile to in One study in found 1, full-time residents moving into coastal counties around the country each day. 22005 of those people could not afford to live near the water without federally-underwritten flood insurance. Deceeto program currently has roughly 4. But storms like Katrina quickly outstrip the premiums and reserves, with claims expected to climb into the billions.

That means administrators will go to Congress for a bail-out, which in turn means that taxpayers, not policyholders, will foot the bill. Experts say the idea of paying multiple claims on flood-prone properties is something the private market would never do — at least without dramatically raising dedreto.

There are certain areas where we simply should retreat. While Presidents Bush and Clinton proposed heavy cuts in federal funding for these projects — in which the U. Local governments invariably argue that their beaches are a national resource and treasure, and they have banded together to form a powerful lobby that so far has kept the congressional money pipelines open.

Beaches stretching from New Jersey south around the Gulf Coast to Texas each year receive xecreto for sand pumping projects, decrdto though some are back within a few years asking for more money after ocean currents and storms scour their rebuilt beaches. Many experts are labeling the evacuations ahead of Katrina and Rita as qualified successes, but caution secreto there dee serious problems that merit a review of evacuation plans across the country, especially since the risk of a terrorist strike puts nearly every city in peril.


Katrina showed us that all those structures we depend on can be swept away. And while Rita sparked a painful, but eventually successful evacuation of deecreto 3 million people in the Houston and Texas coastal areas, gas shortages left hundreds — perhaps thousands — of motorists stranded on the highways.

Texas officials are already examining ways to avoid the problem in the future, although the solutions seem problematic, since gas tanker trucks get stuck in traffic just like evacuees. Another disturbing point about Rita, the experts say, is that it was identified as a threat several days ahead of landfall. Experts say the solution falls on the shoulders of governments, but also on individuals.

A lot of governments are woefully ill-prepared. Please sign up if interested! The training site is within a ha mangrove restoration project at West Lake Park operated by Broward County. The award-winning project was designed by Roy R.

The workshop includes an introduction to mangrove forest ecology, management options and problems, and restoration design issues. The class programs are all given in a PowerPoint format, and each student is provided with a print out of the presentation and additional handouts including monitoring reports for typical restoration projects.

Case studies of 5 successful mangrove restoration projects, and several unsuccessful projects, are discussed. Field trips are taken within the ha West Lake Park mangrove restoration project now 16 years old and a new project just two years old, for a comparison.

The emphasis is on cost-effective successful mangrove management and restoration, and cost figures for typical projects are discussed and explained.

The hydrologic restoration of mangroves is emphasized as the best approach to successful restoration at minimal cost see Erftemeijer and Lewis ; Lewisa, b, In press; Lewis and Marshall ; Lewis and Streever ; Stevenson et al. Planting of mangroves is discussed in light of the many failures of this alone to successfully restore mangroves. Cost for the course not including travel to Ft. Two qualified students will be allowed to attend for free, and can apply at any time for the two fee-waived positions.

This course is organized by the Coastal Resources Group, Inc. More information can be provided by Robin Lewis at and www. Many groups in India have approached MAP following the tsunami requesting information and support to restore mangroves. The vital role of mangroves to reduce the powerful energy of a tsunami by acting as a natural green break wall wasclearly demonstrated on Dec. After much consultation and discussion, it was decided the best way for MAP to help groups in India is to hold a workshop there on the hydrological method of mangrove restoration for about 20 NGO representatives.

This will be a training of the trainers TOT workshop, with small-scale model mangrove restoration projects occurring after the workshop as part of the local follow-up workshops. This training in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, Nov. CCDP has been involved in mangrove planting projects for about four years and the planned workshop will utilize their mangrove restoration sites for part of the workshop field training. We are now requesting your help in selling both the calendars and card sets for MAP.

If interested, please let us know how many calendars and card sets you will need. The calendars and card sets are beautiful items, ee will make wonderful gifts for friends and family, as well as provide needed funding support for MAP at this critical time! Please give generously today! In commemoration of this sad and brutal experience, MOSOP UK is planning a number of events to celebrate and remember the lives of our martyrs.

Please check their website for more information. For the anniversary in November, we have scheduled a remembrance church service and a silent demonstration which decret include laying of wreath at Shell Headquarters in Waterloo, London.

Details of these and other events will be circulated cecreto due course. Please remember that Ken Saro Wiwa did not seek justice for only the Ogonis but for all Niger Delta communities and the downtrodden public. We therefore especially seek the support of all Niger Delta communities to make this a memorableanniversary.


Any group or individuals who wish to contribute to our planned activities should please contact MOSOP UK with their support and or contribution. Thank you for your continued support. The Manzanar Project enables impoverished people suffering from hunger to produce food and wealth for themselves by utilizing in an innovative way seemingly unproductive land to produce mangrove trees.

Mangroves, Avicennia marina, are trees which grow in the inter tidal area of tropical countries watered only by sea water.

This is important in countries where fresh water is insufficient for a robust agriculture. Conventional agriculture cannot produce enough food to feed the people of Eritrea, dee when the frequent droughts occur wide spread death from famine is only prevented by international food aid.

At the moment Eritrea is suffering from last years drought.

The MAP News, rd Ed., 17 Oct | Mangrove Action Project

These natural forests are in danger of extinction because of over grazing by camels. We can plant between ten to twenty thousand hectares of mangrove 20005 which will substantially increase the nations food supply and in the coastal desert areas eliminate hunger and poverty.

We have learned to feed sheep and goats exclusively on mangrove material. Leaves and tender stems are cut from the trees and fed to the animals.

The bulk vecreto the food is provided by the seeds of the mangroves. We harvest the seeds, soak them in sea water to remove the covers and sun dry them. This results in a grain-like material which can be stored for at least one year. The animals ddcreto doing very well on such a diet, and we believe it alone is sufficient, but we are experimenting with supplements of zinc, vitamin E, phosphate, ammonium xecreto, and selenium, to see if the diet can be improved by inexpensive additives.

Finally, our method of fertilization poses no! Our method provides fertilizer at a slow and steady rate — only enough to support growth — so that no excess will runoff in the adjoining sea. We have measured runoff and could not detect any continuedWe have planted aboutmangrove trees in the vicinity of 205 village of Hargigo, and families in the village are raising sheep and goats on a diet of exclusively mangrove material.

We believe that the mangrove forests will eliminate hunger and poverty in the village of Hargigo, and eventually in areas with similar conditions. Countries such as Somalia, Djibouti, Mexico, and Peru immediately come to mind. The forest ce quite beautiful and the environment is substantially improved with trees growing where there were only plant-free mud flats.

Small fishes, crabs, and oysters abound in our forest. The 0205 are quite impressed 205 the beauty of our forests and will soon realize the economic benefits. We are especially proud that the people we have trained, including uneducated villagers, are capable of carrying out the work themselves.

Let me now explain the logic of our xe. Each step is extremely simple but the sum total of these simple steps can have great practical impact. I believe our program can eliminate the specter of famine from Eritrea. We reasoned that the rain water must be bringing minerals from land which are deficient in sea water. Upon examining the content of sea water, we found that it contains all the elements needed for plants except nitrogen, phosphorus and iron. We reasoned that mangroves could be grown in the plant-free mud flats if these elements were provided.

We also reasoned that the fringes could be considerably widened if these minerals could be provided because the rain waters could not carry these elements in sufficient quantities more deecreto meters from the high tide line. That our reasoning is correct is evidenced by the fact that we have established trees in ten separate areas using our methods.

We have never failed. The second step was to determine how to deliver fertilizer to trees growing in an area deecreto is continually awash in sea water. We pack a plastic bag with diammonium phosphate and urea. We puncture three holes on the upper surface of the bag with a nail and bury the bag about ten centimeters below the surface next to the tree.