Grounded in naturally-occurring language data and drawing on findings from linguistic pragmatics and social psychology, Jonathan Culpeper. Politeness and Impoliteness Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University) 1. Introduction Thirty or so years ago politeness was a specialist, even somewhat. Impoliteness strategies. Jonathan Culpeper. Uploaded by. Jonathan Culpeper. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the .

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References Abrahams, Roger D. Interestingly, this approach encompasses a imooliteness context than the local structures of conversation analysts, including for example aspects of identity and the history of particular identities. Let us survey some of those definitions and approaches.

Politeness and Impoliteness | Jonathan Culpeper –

Retrospect, Conspect, and Prospect. Here we have the opposite of genuine impoliteness, that cklpeper, mock impoliteness, which consists of impolite forms whose effects are at least theoretically for the most part cancelled by the context the term “mock impoliteness” is used in Leech a; also see Bernalfor a discussion of genuine vs.

Studies in the Black English Vernacular. The following paragraphs will expand on each of the above four points in turn. For example, “you fucking cunt” is likely to be highly offensive across a wider range of contexts than “you bastard”, though not necessarily all contexts I have examples in my data where it is used in the context of friendly banter.

One of the problems in moving this issue forward is that there are so many different politeness models.

Leech a have made no explicit connection with generalised implicatures, instead discussing politeness in terms of the recovery of the speaker’s intentions in deviating from Gricean cooperativeness on a particular occasion i. Cultural considerations clearly come into play here. Consequently, they argue for distinct terminology and definitions, as well as careful monitoring see also, Eelen Journal of Pragmatics 18 4: Still, even with Spencer-Oatey’s more sophisticated im;oliteness there is no guarantee that every positive evaluative belief necessarily correlates with politeness attitudes.


Text – Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse. Thus, the culpeprr has a vested interest in maintaining the hearer’s face, since this will enhance the probability of reciprocal facework. The impoliteness output strategies outlined in Culpeper seem to have stood the test of time, the same basic set having been applied in a number of studies. The more language-based ones are listed below, followed by an impoliteness output strategy classification in square brackets: Seek disagreement – select a sensitive topic.

Penman, Robyn Facework and politeness: However, even the leading politeness discursive work has but some characteristics of a purely discursive approach and not all.

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In order to show solidarity with h, say something which is i obviously untrue, and ii obviously impolite to h” [and this will give rise to an interpretation such that] “what s says is impolite to h and is clearly untrue. There are other ways of doing politeness, and those other ways might be evaluated as polite by North Americans, just as using please in certain contexts might be evaluated as polite by British English people.

In their view, “any comparative social theory must be at once based on universal principles and yet have culture-internal application” Broadly speaking, this particular critical thrust reflects a shift in emphasis, at least in some paradigms, from “etic” approaches to an “emic” ones, to use the terminology coined by Kenneth Pike []. It matters how the rest of the request is worded: Note the capitalisation here.


This manual is designed for the North American context. Journal of Pragmatics 39 4: It is not used by anybody to anybody, or in any context, and when it is used, it is generally considered interpersonally positive.

Grounded in naturally-occurring language data and drawing on findings from linguistic pragmatics and social The fact that this is so accounts for the observation that politeness often passes unnoticed Kasper This book offers penetrating insights into a hitherto neglected and poorly understood phenomenon.

We have already seen in section 2. This may sound implausible, but Leech is talking about the expression of impolite beliefs. A theory of politeness2 should concern itself with the discursive struggle over politeness, i. The main dimension along which Brown and Levinson’s super-strategies for performing politeness are ordered is directness, defined in terms of complying with or deviating from Grice’s Cooperative Principle.

Culpepre attempt is mipoliteness to acknowledge the hearer’s face wants. Linguistic politeness refers to linguistic or behavioural forms that are conventionally associated with contexts in which politeness attitudes are activated this view is consistent with, for example, Terkourafi e.

An attitude involves a favourable or unfavourable reaction to stimuli, and has cognitive, affective and behavioural elements see Bradac et al. Which output strategy will one select to serve a particular superstrategy? Making and responding to requests in institutional settings. Although works apparently belonging to the discursive approach vary imopliteness, their characteristics typically include: